Effects of self-talk: a systematic review

This article presents a systematic review of the literature examining the 对话10位顶级投资人 对话10位顶级投资人 relationship between self-talk and performance. "Second-generation questions" regarding potential mediators and moderators of the self-talk-performance relationship were also examined. A total of 47 studies were analyzed. Results indicated beneficial effects of positive, instructional, and 对话10位顶级投资人 motivational self-talk for performance. Somewhat surprisingly, two evidence-based challenges to popular current viewpoints on self-talk emerged. First, negative self-talk did not impede performance. Second, there was inconsistent evidence for the differential effects of instructional and motivational self-talk based on task characteristics. Results from the mediation-based analysis indicate that cognitive and behavioral factors 对话10位顶级投资人 对话10位顶级投资人 had the most consistent relationships with self-talk. The findings are discussed in the context of recent theoretical advances, and the article includes recommendations for future research (e.g., the use of designs allowing the testing of meditational hypotheses) and for current applied practice (e.g., avoiding the use of thought-stopping techniques).

Similar articles

Edwards C, Tod D, McGuigan M. Edwards C, et al. J Sports Sci. 2008 Nov;26(13):对话10位顶级投资人 对话10位顶级投资人 1459-65. doi: 10.1080/02640410802287071. J Sports Sci. 2008. PMID: 18923954

Blecharz J, Luszczynska A, Tenenbaum G, Scholz U, 对话10位顶级投资人 Cieslak R. Blecharz J, et al. Appl Psychol Health Well Being. 2014 Nov;6(3):280-99. doi: 10.1111/aphw.12028. Epub 2014 Jun 19. Appl Psychol Health Well Being. 2014. PMID: 24941923

Bellomo E, Cooke 对话10位顶级投资人 A, Gallicchio G, Ring C, Hardy J. Bellomo E, et al. Psychophysiology. 2020 Sep;57(9):e13586. doi: 10.1111/psyp.13586. Epub 2020 May 15. Psychophysiology. 2020. PMID: 32412145

Macdougall H, O'Halloran P, Shields N, 对话10位顶级投资人 Sherry E. Macdougall H, et al. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2015 Jul;32(3):256-76. doi: 10.对话10位顶级投资人 1123/APAQ.2014-0168. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2015. PMID: 26113553 Review.

Hatzigeorgiadis A, Zourbanos N, Galanis E, Theodorakis Y. Hatzigeorgiadis A, et al. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2011 Jul;6(4):348-56. doi: 10.1177/1745691611413136. Perspect 对话10位顶级投资人 Psychol Sci. 2011. PMID: 26167788 Review.

Cited by

Galanis E, Hatzigeorgiadis A, Charachousi F, Latinjak AT, Comoutos N, 对话10位顶级投资人 Theodorakis Y. Galanis E, et al. Front Sports Act Living. 2022 Jun 17;4:892046. doi: 10.3389/fspor.对话10位顶级投资人 2022.892046. eCollection 2022. Front Sports Act Living. 2022. PMID: 35784806 Free PMC article.

Rose J, Pedrazzi R, Dombrowski SU. Rose J, et al. Health Psychol Behav Med. 2022 Apr 7;10(1):399-414. doi: 10.1080/21642850.2022.2053686. eCollection 2022. Health Psychol Behav Med. 2022. PMID: 35425666 Free PMC article.

Trotter MG, Coulter TJ, Davis PA, Poulus DR, Polman R. Trotter MG, et al. Front Psychol. 2021 Nov 11;12:722030. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.722030. eCollection 2021. Front Psychol. 2021. PMID: 34858261 Free PMC article.

Sun S, Zhang SX, Jahanshahi AA, Jahanshahi M. Sun S, et al. Stress Health. 2022 Feb;38(1):3-18. doi: 10.1002/smi.3059. Epub 2021 May 8. Stress Health. 2022. PMID: 33945206 Free PMC article.

Tang Y, Ryan L. Tang Y, et al. Front Psychol. 2020 Jun 16;11:1334. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01334. eCollection 2020. Front Psychol. 2020. PMID: 32612562 Free PMC article.



<: :1>, there you are! I must say, the attitude of the Mogmenders is much improved. They have mastered the 对话10位顶级投资人 basics of stonemasonry more quickly than I had anticipated, and remain ever eager to learn. Once the rubble has been cleared, we can begin rebuilding.

Therein lies our problem, however. I am afraid we 对话10位顶级投资人 lack the numbers to remove the debris on our own. I requested aid from the moogles of Asah, but have yet to receive a response. Doubtless they are trying to avoid any kind of hard 对话10位顶级投资人 work.

And so I would task you, my dear Mogzin, with bringing them here. I give you leave to use whatever trick you can conceive of to get those malingering moogles to Bahrr Lehs.对话10位顶级投资人

Do not be so quick to lose heart! You fail only because your ideas are half-formed, marred 对话10位顶级投资人 by compromise and poor planning. You must persevere in your efforts if you wish to succeed. It is as the words of my house state: “By the hundredth blow.”

For a single strike of the chisel merely scratches a stone's surface. It is only with constant effort that stones give rise to bricks, to walls, and at last an impregnable fortress. Such is the power of will. Of perseverance. Of determination!

Will, perseverance, determination. I. I will remember, kupo! Yes, I'll craft a trick so cunning they'll sing songs of it throughout Moghome!

Aye, that's the spirit! You are a leader, and it is past time you took charge. Show the others that the Mogmenders are not to be trifled with!

However, while I have great faith in Mogzin, he still has yet to meet his full potential. Which is why I must ask you to accompany him, <: :1>. Ensure he does not slip back into his old ways. Give that pom-pom of his a firm shake if 对话10位顶级投资人 对话10位顶级投资人 对话10位顶级投资人 you sense his will is wavering.

I'm sure there will be no need for that, kupo! Nevertheless, 对话10位顶级投资人 I would certainly appreciate the company! Well then, shall we be off? We should begin by speaking 对话10位顶级投资人 对话10位顶级投资人 对话10位顶级投资人 对话10位顶级投资人 with Mogupp, the moogle in charge over at Asah.

There he is, kupo! He doesn't look to be up to any mischief. Perhaps there is a perfectly reasonable explanation for why help hasn'对话10位顶级投资人 t arrived after all.

I know our Mogzin has grown, but I fear he still needs guidance. And I believe you are exactly the one to give it to him. For my part, I shall begin preparations to greet our new hands.

Oh, if it isn't Master Mogzin! And the adventurer I've heard so much about! Hmmm, I seem to recall a request of some manner from 对话10位顶级投资人 the Mogmenders. Oh yes, you required extra paws to help move the rubble?

That's correct, kupo. The request was made some time ago, and still not a single moogle has arrived at Bahrr 对话10位顶级投资人 Lehs. We can't hope to make any progress without them!

Ah yes, who could forget such an unusual name? Of course I dispatched several moogles the moment the missive came, but I'm afraid I may have sent them to the wrong location. Awfully hard to pronounce that name, you see. Why, 对话10位顶级投资人 I suppose they could be anywhere now. And without the provisions for a long journey.

Oh, 对话10位顶级投资人 对话10位顶级投资人 how dreadful, kupo! All alone among those wild beasts, hungry and afraid! Curse my clumsy tongue! Curse it! Could. could you help me find them? Please, bring them something to sate their hunger, and I'm certain they'll be most willing to help!

. Of course! An understandable mistake. I can scarce pronounce half the names I hear. Don't worry, Mogupp, my companion and I will have the errant moogles back here and safe posthaste.

It wouldn't serve to go searching blindly, however, 对话10位顶级投资人 lest we become lost ourselves. No, we must discuss our strategy beforehand. <: :1>, let's confer down below.

I can see it now, their pom-poms shivering in fear. Please, you must do something! I'd 对话10位顶级投资人 never be able to live with myself should they come to harm, kupo!

Little does Mogupp know, I've already fallen for this trick! Twice! Why trouble yourself to get your own food when a gullible moogle will deliver it right to you? It would be a brilliant ploy if it wasn't so overused!

And now, we have our chance to. What did Tarresson say? Ah, turn the tables! If we can trick them into going to Bahrr Lehs, I daresay they'd stay just as a sign of respect. Mogupp and his lackeys are a clever bunch, though. How could I possibly get the better of them?

If only we could use those fake kupo nuts. But by 对话10位顶级投资人 now every moogle in Moghome and beyond has heard of them! And rightly so; they are truly 对话10位顶级投资人 masterpieces! Certainly not something I could ever hope to surpass.

And there's no shame in that! Yes, why reach for the skies when a kupo nut is hanging just within reach? Besides, Asah is 对话10位顶级投资人 far from Moghome. I wager Mogupp and the others have heard nothing of your fake nuts. Well then, I believe the matter is settled!



The Antecedent bid me tell you to make for 对话10位顶级投资人 Vesper Bay, where young Alphinaud awaits your coming most eagerly. It was he who requested your assistance.

While you do whatever it is that Alphinaud has planned for you, I shall endeavor to track down 对话10位顶级投资人 our traitorous Brass Blade. And when I do, you may rest assured that we will have our 对话10位顶级投资人 对话10位顶级投资人 answers.

You are late. No matter─I know where our visitors are headed. From what I have been able to gather, this vessel belongs to a band of Domans who seek an audience with the 对话10位顶级投资人 sultana. You are familiar with Doma, yes? In Othard?

Well, like the rest of the nations of the eastern continent, it is ruled by the Garlean Empire. Given our visitors' unannounced arrival, as well as the state of their ship, I suspect they did not leave their homeland under the best circumstances. Needless to say, I should be very interested to hear their tale and, more importantly, what they 对话10位顶级投资人 对话10位顶级投资人 know of the current state of affairs in the Empire. Such information could prove most useful.

We 对话10位顶级投资人 对话10位顶级投资人 would be fools not to pursue this opportunity, do you not think? Come with me to Ul'dah, 对话10位顶级投资人 <: :1>. Unless I am mistaken─and I am rarely mistaken─we will find the Domans bickering with a Sultansworn on the Royal Promenade.

. You are uncertain of your role in the proceedings? Insurance. If our 对话10位顶级投资人 guests are not themselves imperial agents, it seems fair to assume that they may be being pursued by some. And if not, who better than you to have on hand in the event of an unforeseen diplomatic incident?
Besides, I do so enjoy your sparkling repartee. Satisfied? Good. I shall see you in Ul'dah.

Преодолейте языковой барьер

Переводите разговоры на разных устройствах — от чатов тет-а-тет до больших групповых 对话10位顶级投资人 дискуссий.

Как это работает

1. Начните

Нажмите "Начать разговор", войдите в систему и введите свое имя и язык.

2. Поделитесь

Поделитесь 对话10位顶级投资人 кодом беседы с другими участниками, которые могут присоединиться с помощью веб-сайта или приложения Переводчик.

3. Говорите

Говорите или набирайте текст на вашем языке, чтобы общаться с другими участниками, которые увидят ваши сообщения на своем языке.